Understanding PFAS: The ‘Forever Chemicals’ in Our Daily Lives

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Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), a group of man-made chemicals, have emerged as a significant environmental and public health concern over the past few decades but have poorly been addressed. Since their development in the 1940s, PFAS have been widely used in various industries due to their unique properties. These chemicals are found in a range of everyday products, from non-stick cookware and water-repellent clothing to firefighting foams and numerous industrial applications (EPA, 2023).

However, the durability of PFAS, which earned them the nickname “forever chemicals,” poses considerable challenges. They are persistent in the environment and the human body, meaning they do not break down and can accumulate over time (Christensen, 2024). This persistence has led to widespread environmental contamination and raised alarms about potential health risks. Scientific studies have linked exposure to certain PFAS with adverse health outcomes, including cancer, thyroid dysfunction, and immune system effects (ATSDR, 2024).

In response to these concerns, regulatory agencies in the United States and globally have begun to take action. Phasing out certain PFAS, enhancing environmental and health monitoring, and developing regulations to limit their use and release into the environment are part of these efforts  (EPA, 2023). This article delves into the complex world of PFAS, exploring their uses, the environmental and health concerns they pose, the regulatory landscape, and the ongoing efforts to understand and mitigate their impacts.

PFAS and Their Common Uses

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been extensively used in a variety of consumer and industrial products since the 1940s, due to their unique properties like resistance to heat, water, oil, and stains (Ginty & Lindwall, 2023).

  • Non-Stick Cookware
    • Teflon: PFAS, particularly PFOA, has been a key component in non-stick cookware, providing these products with their signature non-stick quality.
  • Textiles and Fabrics
    • Water-repellent Clothing: PFAS are used in clothing for their water-resistant properties.
    • Stain-resistant Fabrics and Carpets: The resistance to stains and soil makes PFAS ideal for use in household fabrics and carpets.
  • Firefighting Foams
    • Aqueous Film-Forming Foams (AFFF): PFAS is a crucial element in certain firefighting foams, especially those used in combating fuel fires.
  • Food Packaging
    • Resistant to Grease and Oil: PFAS are used in food packaging materials due to their ability to resist grease, water, and oil, thereby maintaining the quality and safety of packaged food.
  • Industrial Applications
    • Electronics Manufacturing and Other Industries: PFAS are utilized in various industrial processes due to their chemical and temperature resistance.
  • Other Consumer Products
    • Cosmetics and Cleaning Products: Some cosmetics and cleaning products contain PFAS for their unique properties.

Environmental and Health Concerns of PFAS

Environmental Impact of PFAS

PFAS are highly persistent in the environment, which has led to their widespread presence across the globe. These substances are found in water, air, soil, and various food products. The extensive use of PFAS and their resistance to breaking down over time has resulted in their detection in the blood of both people and animals worldwide. The environmental persistence of PFAS, along with their ability to accumulate in the human body, raises significant concerns about their long-term effects on human health and ecosystems (CDC, 2022).

Health Concerns

The potential health effects of PFAS exposure are a subject of ongoing research and concern. The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention indicates that exposure to certain PFAS may lead to a variety of adverse health outcomes, including:

  • Reproductive Effects: These include decreased fertility or increased high blood pressure in pregnant women.
  • Developmental Delays in Children: Effects such as low birth weight, accelerated puberty, bone variations, or behavioural changes have been observed.
  • Cancer Risk: There’s an increased risk of certain types of cancer, including prostate, kidney, and testicular cancers.
  • Immune System Impact: PFAS exposure may reduce the body’s ability to fight infections and decrease vaccine response.
  • Endocrine Disruption: Interference with the body’s natural hormones has been noted.
  • Increased Cholesterol Levels: PFAS exposure may be linked to higher cholesterol levels and/or risk of obesity.

Challenges in Assessing Health Effects

The complexity in assessing the health effects of PFAS arises from various factors. There are thousands of PFAS, each potentially having different effects and levels of toxicity. Additionally, the types and uses of PFAS have evolved, complicating the tracking and assessment of exposure and its health impacts. Moreover, people can be exposed to PFAS in different ways and at different life stages (EPA, 2023).

Vulnerable Populations

Certain groups are more susceptible to higher exposure levels of PFAS. For example, occupational exposure is higher in professions like firefighting and chemical manufacturing. Children are particularly vulnerable due to their developing bodies and behaviours such as crawling on floors and putting objects in their mouths, which can lead to increased exposure (US Gov, 2023).

EnvironFocus’ Role in PFAS Testing and Management

EnvironFocus is at the forefront of environmental safety and compliance with its comprehensive PFAS Testing Services. These services, employing advanced analytical methods, are essential in detecting and quantifying PFAS compounds in diverse samples. The thoroughness of EnvironFocus’ testing protocols and capability of handling a wide array of matrices, ensures accurate and reliable results. This expertise in PFAS analysis positions EnvironFocus as a trusted ally for industries and governments in addressing PFAS-related risks. More than just a service, these testing solutions embody EnvironFocus’ commitment to protecting public health and the environment.

The role of EnvironFocus’ PFAS Testing Services extends beyond mere detection. They are instrumental in guiding organizations through the complexities of environmental regulations. By delivering detailed PFAS analyses, EnvironFocus empowers industries and governmental bodies to adhere to regulatory standards and prepares them for future legislative changes. This proactive approach is crucial in maintaining operational integrity and demonstrating dedication to environmental stewardship and public welfare.

Furthermore, EnvironFocus’ contribution through its PFAS Testing Services is pivotal in the broader context of environmental responsibility. These services are not just about identifying and mitigating PFAS in the environment; they are also key in heightening awareness of the impacts of these chemicals. Accurate testing and analysis enable informed decision-making for industries and governments, prioritizing ecological health. EnvironFocus’ unwavering commitment to environmental safety is a testament to their pursuit of a sustainable future, where the harmful effects of pollutants like PFAS are effectively managed and minimized (EnvironFocus, 2024).


The issue of PFAS, or per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances, presents a complex and ongoing challenge in the realms of environmental and public health. As we’ve explored in this article, the widespread use of PFAS in various consumer products and industrial processes, coupled with their persistent nature, has led to significant environmental contamination and health concerns. The persistence of these “forever chemicals” in the environment and the human body, and their potential links to various health issues, underscore the urgency of addressing this problem.

The significance of PFAS testing in preserving our environment and health cannot be overstated. EnvironFocus stands as a beacon in this endeavour, offering state-of-the-art PFAS Testing Services. We urge industries, governments, and individuals to engage with these services. This is not just about meeting regulatory demands; it is a proactive step towards a healthier, safer world. By tackling the challenges posed by PFAS together, we can make a real impact on environmental protection and public health (EnvironFocus, 2024). We invite you to join EnvironFocus on this vital journey towards sustainability and safety. Contact EnvironFocus today!


ATSDR. (2024, January 18). Potential health effects of Pfas Chemicals. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/pfas/health-effects/index.html  

CDC. (2022, May 2). Per- and polyfluorinated substances (PFAS) factsheet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/biomonitoring/PFAS_FactSheet.html#:~:text=Many%20PFAS%2C%20including%20perfluorooctane%20sulfonic,bioaccumulate

Christensen, J. (2024, February 2). Epa proposes some ’forever chemicals’ be considered hazardous. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2024/02/02/health/epa-proposes-pfas-hazardous-wellness/index.html#:~:text=PFAS%2C%20or%20per%2D%20and%20polyfluoroalkyl,98%25%20of%20the%20human%20population.  

EnvironFocus. (2024). Pfas Testing: EnvironfocusTM. https://www.environfocus.com/services/pfas-testing/  

EPA. (2023a, June 7). Our Current Understanding of the Human Health and Environmental Risks of PFAS.  Environmental Protection Agency. https://www.epa.gov/pfas/our-current-understanding-human-health-and-environmental-risks-pfas  

EPA. (2023b, October 25). PFOA, PFOS and Other PFAS. Environmental Protection Agency. https://www.epa.gov/pfas/pfas-explained  

Ginty, M. M., & Lindwall, C. (2023, April 12). “Forever Chemicals” Called PFAS Show Up in Your Food, Clothes, and Home. Natural Resources Defense Council. https://www.nrdc.org/stories/forever-chemicals-called-pfas-show-your-food-clothes-and-home  

US Gov. (2023, December 4). Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS). National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. https://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/pfc

About Post Author

Tia Bigos

Tia Bigos is a 2nd year Environment and Business student studying at the University of Waterloo. This program blends the critical elements of environmental sustainability with the strategic principles of business management, preparing students for the challenges of integrating environmental considerations into business settings. She is on a co-op term working as a Research Assistant for EnvironFocus Inc.
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